IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 12

C UR R ENTS

Blockchain Could Improve Vaccine Supply Chains
and Medical Record Tracking
By Dava Stewart

B

lockchain is the buzzword of
the day, but it's almost always
discussed in the context of
Ç'$$É Ç1ÃÄ Èî Ä ÇÄÃ&$Ä %ÄÇtions. In healthcare, blockchain is
often-mentioned, but it seems to be
seldom understood. However, blockchain technology holds the potential
to solve some of the thorniest issues
in healthcare today.

What Is Blockchain,
Anyway?

/ ÉÃ!Ã&Éî$%&Ã& %Ã!%&Ã"É!"ÉÃ
misunderstand regarding blockchain is that there are two different
types of blockchains: public and private. At its most basic, a blockchain
is blocks of information, chained
together. A more useful way to think
of it, though, is as a shared ledger.
"What blockchain technology
really introduces is a way for us
to have a common view of truth,
like a single source of truth stored
on a digital ledger that's shared
between members of a network,
rather than a ledger that's owned
by any one central entity," says
Ian Fish, partner and healthcare
services leader, IBM Canada.
Consider, for example, how the
supply chain for vaccines works.
The manufacturer keeps a ledger of

transactions related to each batch
of vaccine. Many vaccines must be
kept at a particular temperature to
remain effective, can't be exposed
to ultraviolet light and must be used
within a set amount of time. After
the manufacturer ships the vaccine, the transportation companies
involved have their own ledgers,
logging dates, batch numbers, temperature, destination and so on.
When the vaccine arrives at its
destination, the recipient has yet
another ledger tracking the delivery.
Each of the organizations that handles the vaccine has its own version
of the truth of what happened to the
vaccine. If all of the ledgers related to
the vaccine were compared, would
they be identical? It's unlikely.
"When you have these multiple
ledgers, it actually creates a recipe
for errors but also fraud-people
taking advantage of gaps and understanding across organizations
and then leveraging those gaps as a
means to drive fraud," says Fish.
Any time multiple organizations keep logs of transactions,
there's likely to be discrepancies.
Blockchain eliminates the need
for multiple ledgers, because it's a
shared ledger between members
of a network. All of the members

12 | SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2019 IBMSYSTEMSMAG.COM

agree to a common set of rules,
which are set out, normally, in a
smart contract. Once a transaction
is added to the blockchain, it cannot be deleted or tampered with,
giving all parties a single view of
events with no discrepancies.
Each member of the network has
access to the blockchain through a
key. Keys can be public or private,
depending upon the smart contract,
as well as the type of blockchain and
how it's being used.

How Blockchain Could
Improve Medical Records
A vaccine supply chain is actually a
real-world example of how blockchain technology could be applied
in healthcare soon. The fact that
the healthcare system is made up
of several separate and distinct organizations is most often viewed as
ÄÃÆÄ$$É$LÇ! %ÈÉ$Ã&ÉÃÈ®Ç'&É%Ã
with interoperability, for example-
but that's actually a good reason
blockchain could improve how the
system works. Blockchain delivers
the greatest value when multiple actors attempt to create an end asset.
"Blockchain is not a party of one, it's
a party of many," notes Fish.
A more ambitious goal, but one
with merit, is the use of blockchain


http://www.IBMSYSTEMSMAG.COM

IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019

Table of Contents
Editor's Desk: The times, they are a-changin'
Currents: Combatting ocean pollution with blockchain
Currents: Japan's Fukui Bank transforms business and migrates to IBM Cloud
Currents: On the web
Currents: z/OS Container Extensions frequently asked questions
Currents: 'Mainframe Mike" The Game' teaches children about IBM Z
Currents: (Re)Designed to deliver
Currents: Solutions
Currents: Blockchain could improve vaccine supply chains and medical record tracking
Partner POV: Cultivate the right IT skillset to increase customer centricity
Cover Story: Innovation in Financial Services: IBM Z and LinuxONE underpin fintech efforts
Feature 1: An Agile Approach to Your Multicloud Strategy: 5 insights to consider for a successful cloud-native development experience
Feature 2: Opening the World: Open-source models enhance security, heighten control, lower costs and enable collaboration
TECH Showcase: New workloads demand extraordinary storage performance, reliability and manageability
Techbits: COBOL celebrates 60 years
Techbits: Tailored Fit Pricing for IBM Z unlocks the full power of the platform
Techbits: Ask the expert: IBM Support
Beyond the Box: IBMer Peter Relson photographs wildlife in its natural habitat
Reference Point - Global Events, Education, Resources for Power Systems
2019 Mainframe Solutions Edition Product Index
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Intro
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Cover1
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Cover2
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 1
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 2
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 3
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Table of Contents
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 5
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Editor's Desk: The times, they are a-changin'
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 7
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Currents: Japan's Fukui Bank transforms business and migrates to IBM Cloud
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Currents: z/OS Container Extensions frequently asked questions
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Currents: Solutions
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 11
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Currents: Blockchain could improve vaccine supply chains and medical record tracking
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 13
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 14
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 15
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Partner POV: Cultivate the right IT skillset to increase customer centricity
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 17
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Cover Story: Innovation in Financial Services: IBM Z and LinuxONE underpin fintech efforts
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 19
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 20
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 21
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 22
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 23
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Feature 1: An Agile Approach to Your Multicloud Strategy: 5 insights to consider for a successful cloud-native development experience
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 25
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 26
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 27
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 28
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 29
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Feature 2: Opening the World: Open-source models enhance security, heighten control, lower costs and enable collaboration
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 31
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 32
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 33
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 34
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 35
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 36
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - TECH Showcase: New workloads demand extraordinary storage performance, reliability and manageability
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 38
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 39
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 40
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 41
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Techbits: COBOL celebrates 60 years
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Techbits: Tailored Fit Pricing for IBM Z unlocks the full power of the platform
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 44
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 45
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Techbits: Ask the expert: IBM Support
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 47
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Beyond the Box: IBMer Peter Relson photographs wildlife in its natural habitat
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Cover3
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Cover4
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - Reference Point - Global Events, Education, Resources for Power Systems
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - 2019 Mainframe Solutions Edition Product Index
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - SE2
IBM Systems magazine, Mainframe - September/October 2019 - SE3
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/mspcomm/ibmsystemsmag/ibmsystems_mainframe_20201112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/mspcomm/ibmsystemsmag/ibmsystems_mainframe_20200910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/mspcomm/ibmsystemsmag/ibmsystems_mainframe_20200708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20200506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20200304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20200102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/2020mfse
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20191112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20190910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20190708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20190506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20190304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/relevantz_20190102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/2019mfse
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20190102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20181112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20180910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20180708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20180506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20180304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20180102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/2018mfse
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20171112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170910_v2
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_sesupp
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_linuxsupp
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20161112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/MainframeSecurity
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20160910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20160708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20160506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20160304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20160102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20151112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150910_se
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/MFSkills
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150506_supp
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20141112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140910_v2
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_gt_201405
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/BigData
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20131112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130910_v2
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20121112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/buyersguide2013
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20120910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20120708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20120506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20120304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20120102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/ibmsystems_mainframe_2012bg
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20111112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20110910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20110708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20110506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20110304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20110102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20101112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100910_bg
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20091112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20090910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20090708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20090506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20090304
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com