IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 32

Tech Corner
improve the overall instructionprocessing capability. One measure of an out-of-order microprocessor is based on how far into the future instructions can be overlapped. When a current instruction is waiting for memory access, the further a microprocessor can look into the future for independent work to do, the better the out-of-order design will be. If you picture instruction processing as cars on a highway, out-of-order processing is like having a real-time scanner that prepares magical passing lanes for some cars to get ahead of slowly moving vehicles in front of them. Having a bigger outof-order window is akin to allowing cars farther back on the highway to get ahead. The zEC12 increased this window from 72 to 90 instructions (a 25 percent increase). This larger window provides more opportunities for locating instructions in the future for immediate processing, which otherwise would have waited, leading to faster overall execution, as shown in Figure 1 (right). Another measure is how many instructions can be processed at the same time. The zEC12 introduced a new pair of execution units and instruction queues dedicated to resolve branch instructions, which direct program flow based on data values and the results of prior instructions. Such instructions make up a large part of many programs and handling them efficiently is critical to processor performance. Using these new instruction queues and execution units, the zEC12 microprocessor can handle the branch instructions in a timelier manner. It’s comparable to dedicated express lanes and tollbooths for just branch instructions. Branches can now be resolved more quickly, freeing more general-purpose execution slots for other instructions. This design significantly increases the

Figure 1: Out-of-Order Execution
In-order core execution L1 miss z196 out-of-order core execution L1 miss

Instrs

Time

Time zEC12 out-of-order execution

Dependency Execution Storage access

L1 miss Improved Overlapping Opportunities Time

number of instructions that can be executed simultaneously. These express lanes enable the processor to execute branch instructions efficiently, but to also achieve high performance they must predict where those branch instructions will occur and where they will branch to, keeping the instruction pipeline primed with the right instructions to process. Extending a long history of System z leadership in using sophisticated branch-prediction structures, the zEC12 microprocessor adds a new second-level branch history buffer, which can hold information on up to 24,000 branches. This provides enough history to predict the execution paths for even the largest applications and supports the heterogeneous virtualized workloads often run on System z.

Instruction Set Architecture Extension Not only did zEC12 get more and better processor cores with more and better cache subsystem support, but

also new architecture extensions have been added to enable various software efficiencies, including transactional memory. Software must take advantage of the ever-increasing number of processor cores in a system and be able to run applications efficiently across them. In many cases, however, throughput gains slow considerably as a program is run on more processors in parallel. It can reach a point where throughput stops growing and begins to decline due to contention for semaphores or locks that are used to protect shared data from conflicting accesses and synchronize operations across these processes. One solution to this problem is a technology known as transactional memory. It has been the subject of much research in both academic and industry circles, and has been used in some specialized processors. The zEC12 is the first general-purpose processor to support transactional memory in the hardware. Using transactional memory, software can specify that a particular

22 32

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2012

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IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012

IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012
Table of Contents
Editor's Desk: Been There, Done That
IBM Perspective: Not All Clouds Are Designed Equal
Insider: What's Really Driving Peak CPU Usage?
Focus on Storage: The DS8870 Provides up to Three Times the Performance of Its Predecessor
Case Study: A Capital Investment: DTCC implements tools to ensure its networking infrastructure is ready for anything
Cover Story: A Clear Vision for Cloud: System z GM Doug Balog on why zEnterprise provides a firm foundation for a secure cloud
Feature: Overcoming Cloud Obstacles: The benefits far outweigh the challenges associated with cloud integration
Tech Corner: From Silicon to Architecture, zEC12 Innovations Push the Envelope
Administrator: IBM zAware Extends z/OS Resilience to Another Level
Solutions: Attach Facility; DataSniff; AutoPilot; Eclipse; Correlog Enterprise Server 5.1
Advertisers Index
Stop Run: IBM Distinguished Engineer Joe Temple Reflects on His Juggling Past
Reference Point - Global Events, Education, Resources for Power Systems
Smarter Computing
2013 Mainframe Buyer's Guide Index
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Intro
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Cover2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Table of Contents
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 5
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Editor's Desk: Been There, Done That
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - IBM Perspective: Not All Clouds Are Designed Equal
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Insider: What's Really Driving Peak CPU Usage?
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - BB1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - BB2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 9
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 10
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Focus on Storage: The DS8870 Provides up to Three Times the Performance of Its Predecessor
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 12
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 13
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Case Study: A Capital Investment: DTCC implements tools to ensure its networking infrastructure is ready for anything
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 15
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 16
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 17
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 18
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 19
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Cover Story: A Clear Vision for Cloud: System z GM Doug Balog on why zEnterprise provides a firm foundation for a secure cloud
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 21
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 22
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 23
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 24
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 25
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Feature: Overcoming Cloud Obstacles: The benefits far outweigh the challenges associated with cloud integration
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 27
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 28
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 29
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Tech Corner: From Silicon to Architecture, zEC12 Innovations Push the Envelope
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 31
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 32
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 33
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Administrator: IBM zAware Extends z/OS Resilience to Another Level
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 35
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 36
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 37
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Solutions: Attach Facility; DataSniff; AutoPilot; Eclipse; Correlog Enterprise Server 5.1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Advertisers Index
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Stop Run: IBM Distinguished Engineer Joe Temple Reflects on His Juggling Past
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Cover3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Cover4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Reference Point - Global Events, Education, Resources for Power Systems
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - RF2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - Smarter Computing
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - SC2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S5
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S6
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S7
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S8
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S9
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S10
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S11
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S12
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S13
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S14
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S15
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S16
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S17
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S18
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S19
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S20
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S21
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S22
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S23
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - S24
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - SC3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - SC4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - 2013 Mainframe Buyer's Guide Index
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - BG2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - November/December 2012 - BG3
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