IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 46

Developer
had to account for all of these factors. This was a significant challenge. Other functions were overlooked because of generalizations in the initial assessment. These functions didn’t appear on any screen, but were codes that an agent had to know to use. The first and most functionally critical one, called alternate payment plan, was used for overdue accounts. Other code-triggered functions were invoked via CICS start commands with a commarea, but the commarea layouts were not documented, and this was only determined by examining existing programs and testing. Once the alternate payment plan function was operational, most of the work was done. However, it wrote to the right side of the screen while new AR wrote to the left, requiring the use of advanced CICS basic mapping support features. Other functions needed to be addressed as well: assessed, but assessing the complexity of the business process is even more crucial because the programming must reflect and address all variations and options. Here are some examples in the new AR: transactions and events. And a manyto-one relationship existed between account master and account order. This and other similar situations added to the complexity of file retrieval and update. Indicator files, segment description files, name-and-address files and alternate indexes were also involved. These VSAM flat files lacked many of the manipulative capabilities of a SQL-like language, as well as relational functions such as join or view. The old AR programs read all of the account master and order records into a working-storage array before any significant processing occurred, and this worked against the internal table rather than reading records as they were needed. New AR programs read records as they’re needed. This limited the use of old AR code as a reference or a source of code.

hÁMake A Payment had a similar
commarea, but there were variations that had to be worked out through testing. For example, it transferred to a transaction that transferred to a second transaction before returning to new AR. hÁStatement Order Summary was relatively straightforward; the commarea was similar but again there were variations. hÁReprint Adjusted Invoice was more complicated, and while the commarea was similar, there were also variations. hÁCorrespondence was simple, including the commarea. hÁLastly, programming changes were required to hook new AR into the existing menu system.

hÁAR involves many payment types and variations: cash, credit card, electronic, etc. There are many payment plans as well: one-pay, two-pay, three-pay, alternate payment plans, short payments, overpayments, advance payments and partial payment. hÁThe types of credits and charges in AR include base price, shipping and handling, discounts (dollars and percentage), payments with orders, gift certificates and numerous credits. hÁPayments, credits and charges involve a wide array of dates: next due, past due, shipping, transaction, etc. Date arithmetic is required in many cases. hÁBeyond payments and credits, the types of AR transactions include customer inquiries, requests for statements, payment plans, letters and referrals to collection agencies.
Many exceptions exist for the items listed, and these have to be classified and processed in different ways. All entities listed can be represented by one or two character codes, and they must be expressed in English. Given all of these alternatives and variations, how could the programming effort be simple?

Work Smarter Things can always go wrong on a project and not all problems can be avoided. However, the following recommendations (covered more extensively in Part 1) can dramatically reduce project time and effort and greatly improve the final deliverable:

hÁTake plenty of time hÁDrill deep hÁDefine requirements
thoroughly hÁKnow your resources Once you’ve done that, add 30 to 50 percent to your estimates to account for the unknown. Good luck!

Application Complexity Application complexity is not limited to—and often isn’t even primarily concerned with—code complexity. Code complexity must be

3
46 22

Data Complexity Further complicating AR was the nature of data relationships. A wide variety of one-to-many relationships existed between and within files. Both of the primary AR files—account master, which represented the account, and account order, which represented an order for an account—had fixed and variable portions. A one-to-many relationship existed between those portions—called segments, which represented many different functions,

4

Jim Schesvold is a technical editor for IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe edition.

MARCH/APRIL 2012

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IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012

IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012
Table of Contents
Editor’s Desk: Rethinking System z
IBM Perspective: Smarter Computing, Enterprise Modernization and the Mainframe
Insider: Proper Tools Can Bring Flexibility to Application Development
IT Today: Six Things You Didn't Know About the Modern Mainframe
Trends: Seven Reasons IT Projects Fail
Cover Story: Agile Thinking: How to leverage existing technology to gain a competitive advantage
Features: All Together Now: A centralized business analytics environment delivers great value
Improving Upon the Gold Standard: System z pushes the limits of high availability
Tech Corner: Processor Design Innovations Empower the z196
Developer: Accurate Project Scoping Helps Map Out a Faster Route to Success
Solutions/Advertiser's Index: PASSPORT Host Integration Objects - LegaSuite 6
Stop Run: Mainframer Clarence Golson Reflects on a Diverse Career Built on a Single Platform
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Intro
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Cover2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Table of Contents
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 5
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Editor’s Desk: Rethinking System z
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 7
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - IBM Perspective: Smarter Computing, Enterprise Modernization and the Mainframe
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - I1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - I2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - I3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - I4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 9
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Insider: Proper Tools Can Bring Flexibility to Application Development
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 11
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 12
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 13
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - IT Today: Six Things You Didn't Know About the Modern Mainframe
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 15
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 16
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 17
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Trends: Seven Reasons IT Projects Fail
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 19
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 20
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 21
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 22
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 23
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Cover Story: Agile Thinking: How to leverage existing technology to gain a competitive advantage
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 25
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 26
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 27
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 28
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 29
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Features: All Together Now: A centralized business analytics environment delivers great value
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 31
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 32
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 33
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Improving Upon the Gold Standard: System z pushes the limits of high availability
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 35
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 36
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 37
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 38
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 39
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Tech Corner: Processor Design Innovations Empower the z196
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - V1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - V2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 41
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 42
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 43
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Developer: Accurate Project Scoping Helps Map Out a Faster Route to Success
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 45
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - 46
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Solutions/Advertiser's Index: PASSPORT Host Integration Objects - LegaSuite 6
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Stop Run: Mainframer Clarence Golson Reflects on a Diverse Career Built on a Single Platform
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Cover3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - Cover4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - RF1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - BG1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - March/April 2012 - BG2
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