IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 35

register or perform an operation on values in registers. RX-type instructions do both. But, an RX-type instruction can be “cracked” into two simpler instructions or “micro-ops,” one that accesses memory and one that performs the logical or arithmetic operation. For example, the RX-type add instruction A R1,0(,R2) fetches the value pointed to by register 2 and adds it to the value in register 1, retaining the result in register 1. It can be cracked into a load instruction followed by an add register instruction, using the physical register allocated for the result to hold the loaded operand between the micro-ops. The mainframe also has storage-tostorage instructions like Move Character (MVC). The z196 cracks these moves into one or two pairs of load and store micro-ops if the operand length is 16 bytes or fewer. But to understand why

cracking is a good thing, we have to look at the z196 pipeline in more detail.

The z196 Pipeline Cracking makes it possible for many non-RISC instructions to be executed as a number of RISC micro-ops. The z196 pipeline capitalizes on this. Figure 3 (page 34) depicts only a part of the pipeline. Two load/store pipe segments handle loads and stores, and two fixed-point execution pipe segments handle register-to-register operations. Once a complex instruction has been cracked into two or more micro-ops, these can be sent through the pipes separately and coordinated in the Global Completion Table, thus maximizing processing parallelism. Tip of the Iceberg This has been a brief overview of the major techniques developed

by processor designers to speed up program execution above and beyond any cycle time reductions provided by chip technology. Other important techniques include branch prediction, special-purpose coprocessors and enhanced translation look-aside buffers. An overview of these topics is provided in a continuation of this article on the IBM Systems Magazine website at ibmsystemsmag.com/
mainframe/administrator/performance/ rogers_processor/.

Bob Rogers is a z/OS designer and evangelist. An IBM Distinguished Engineer, he frequently presents at SHARE and other conferences.

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IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012

IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012
Table of Contents
Editor’s Desk: Simplicity Itself
IBM Perspective: The Changing Data Center
Insider: Solve the DevOps Challenge With Orchestrated IT
Q&A: Guru Rao Explains How a Better World Begins With Smarter Computing
Case Study: A Comfortable Place: Furniture Brands rests easier with SecureAgent's backup and recovery solution
Cover Story: Smarter By Design: "That's the way to build capacity and hold costs flat," says IBM VP Doug Brown
Feature: Another Dimension: What sets the zEnterprise environment apart?
Tech Corner: How You Do What You Do When You're a z196 CPU
Tips & Techniques: Virtualization Reshapes How Data Is Stored
Solutions: CA Mainframe Application Turner - M4Workbench Eclipse - Virtual Machine Backup
Resources: Advertisers’ Index
Stop Run: Through Three Generations, One Family's Story Shows That While Technology Has Changed, IBM's Fundamental Mission Hasn't
Reference Point - Global events, Education, Resources of Mainframe
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Intro
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Cover2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Table of Contents
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 5
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Editor’s Desk: Simplicity Itself
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 7
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - IBM Perspective: The Changing Data Center
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 9
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Insider: Solve the DevOps Challenge With Orchestrated IT
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 11
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 12
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Q&A: Guru Rao Explains How a Better World Begins With Smarter Computing
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 14
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - CT1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - CT2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 15
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Case Study: A Comfortable Place: Furniture Brands rests easier with SecureAgent's backup and recovery solution
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 17
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 18
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 19
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Cover Story: Smarter By Design: "That's the way to build capacity and hold costs flat," says IBM VP Doug Brown
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 21
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 22
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 23
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 24
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 25
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Feature: Another Dimension: What sets the zEnterprise environment apart?
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 27
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 28
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 29
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 30
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Tech Corner: How You Do What You Do When You're a z196 CPU
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 32
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 33
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 34
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 35
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Tips & Techniques: Virtualization Reshapes How Data Is Stored
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 37
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - 38
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Resources: Advertisers’ Index
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Stop Run: Through Three Generations, One Family's Story Shows That While Technology Has Changed, IBM's Fundamental Mission Hasn't
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Cover3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Cover4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - Reference Point - Global events, Education, Resources of Mainframe
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - BG1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe Edition - January/February 2012 - BG2
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