IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 38

workload? You can answer these questions and estimate the TCO of a private cloud environment, as well as compare it to other alternatives, by: 1. Determining the expected consolidation ratio for a given workload type (e.g., Windows*, Linux*, etc.) 2. Est i mat i ng t he a n nua l cost to operate the virtualized servers (for three to five years) 3. Comparing to stand-alone provisioning or public cloud services To determine the consolidation ratio, t he I BM Sof t wa re Group Compet itive Project Office conducted a series of performance benchmarks. A sample banking application was built using IBM WebSphere* Application Server (WAS) and DB2* running on Linux and run on an older four-way (single core each) IBM x366 server using 3.66 GHz Intel* processors and 12 GB of memory. Average CPU utilization was 5 percent, throughput was four and one half transactions per second and average response time was 40 milliseconds. A virtual machine (VM) image of that workload was then created and placed on an 8-core IBM x3950 server (four 3.5 GHz dual-core processors) with 64 GB of total physical memor y and running a popular x86 architecture-based hypervisor. Multiple running instances of this VM image were added incrementally to the server until it could no longer handle any additional throughput. CPU utilization, throughput and response-time metrics were captured throughout. This same test was then applied to a single frame IBM System z10* Enterprise Class (z10 EC) machine (eight Integrated Facility for Linux, or IFL, cores at 4.4 GHz) running z/VM* as a hypervisor. For t he x86 hy per v isor case, t he m a x i m u m n u m b e r of V M i m a ge s supported with acceptable response time was approximately 30. The z/VM case, however, showed a maximum of about 74 images. Using maximum throughput 38 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2009 as the metric reduced the maximum number of VM images to less than 20 for the x86 architecture-based hypervisor, whereas it increased the z/VM number to about 85. Some customers use CPU utilization as their SLA metric. It should be noted: These benchmark results were achieved by driving the machines to 100-percent utilization with no variation in workload. In practice, real-world workloads have variability in demand. This variability has an effect on what CPU utilization can be tolerated on the target consolidation platform. Ideally, you should run utilization levels high enough to achieve the highest consolidation ratio, but still keep it less than 100 percent to allow for peaks caused by this variance in workload demand. One way to gauge the impact of workload variability on consolidation ratios is to use statistical models. If we were to track average workload utilization over time with varying demand, the results would tend to exhibit a bell curve distribution pattern (see Figure 1, below). Theory tells us 95 percent of all values fall within two standard deviations from the mean. Thus, if we had an SLA that required us to handle 95 percent of all workloads that occur on the system over a given time period, we’d need to size a machine with Figure 1 a capacity of the mean plus two times the standard deviation (sigma). When you combine workloads with variable demand, the overall variability of the combined workloads gets smaller. Thus, larger machines capable of accommodating more workloads can run at higher utilization levels than smaller ones. When we apply a 95 percent SLA, the maximum number of VM images that can be supported by the x86 hypervisor system is reduced to eight, whereas the z/VM case can only handle a maximum of 40 images. One other factor must be considered. These revised consolidation ratios assume f lat-out operation. In practice, not all servers or images are used all of the time. Customer and public cloud provider experience has shown typical usage patterns of 14 hours per day (59 percent). This means in theory, we should be able to run 1.7 times more images on each platform in order to maximize usage, thus increasing the consolidation ratio to almost 14 for the x86 hypervisor case and 68 for the z/VM case. TCO Analysis T he next step in the analysis called for estimating the TCO over five years for running 100 Linux images Statistical Models Can Account For Workload Variability ibmsystemsmag.com/mainframe

IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009

IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009
Table of Contents
Editor's Desk: IBM Makes it Easy to be Green
Focus on Storage: System z, DS8000 and Tivoli Provide a Complete Encryption Package
Trends: CICS Transaction Server 4.1 Helps Organizations, Compete, Comply and Control
Case Study: Transzap Consolidates its Oracle Databases in a Virtualized Linux on Mainframe Environment
Cover Story: IBM Poughkeepsie Green Data Center Showcases a Dynamic Infrastructure
Feature: IBM Study Reveals the System z10 Provides a Cheaper, Easier-to-Manage Cloud Solution
Feature: Women in IT Team Up to Succeed
Developer: Process XML Documents Within COBOL and DB2
SSDs Are Integral to Enterprise Storage Infrastructures
Product News
Advertiser Index
Stop Run: Gordon Bruce Talks His Way Into a High-Profile IT Gig
Reference Point
2010 Mainframe Buyer's Guide
COMPANY SHOWCASES: Learn more about some of the companies that develop and sell products for the mainframe
PRODUCT + SERVICE LAUNCHES: Get in-depth descriptions of some products in the guide
SUCCESS STORIES: These real-world examples show how mainframe business partners bring real value to companies
USING THE PRODUCT + SERVICE DIRECTORY: How to navigate the listings
Product + Service Directory: Hardware Listings
Product + Service Directory: Software Listings
Product + Service Directory: Services Listings
Product + Service Directory: Education Listings
INDEXES
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Intro
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Cover2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Table of Contents
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 5
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 6
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 7
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Editor's Desk: IBM Makes it Easy to be Green
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 9
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Focus on Storage: System z, DS8000 and Tivoli Provide a Complete Encryption Package
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 11
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 12
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 13
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 14
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 15
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Trends: CICS Transaction Server 4.1 Helps Organizations, Compete, Comply and Control
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 17
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 18
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 19
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 20
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 21
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Case Study: Transzap Consolidates its Oracle Databases in a Virtualized Linux on Mainframe Environment
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 23
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 24
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 25
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 26
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 27
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Cover Story: IBM Poughkeepsie Green Data Center Showcases a Dynamic Infrastructure
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 29
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 30
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 31
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 32
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 33
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 34
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 35
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Feature: IBM Study Reveals the System z10 Provides a Cheaper, Easier-to-Manage Cloud Solution
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 37
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 38
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 39
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 40
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 41
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Feature: Women in IT Team Up to Succeed
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 43
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 44
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BRC1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BRC2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 45
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Developer: Process XML Documents Within COBOL and DB2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 47
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 48
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 49
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - SSDs Are Integral to Enterprise Storage Infrastructures
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 51
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 52
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 53
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Product News
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Advertiser Index
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Stop Run: Gordon Bruce Talks His Way Into a High-Profile IT Gig
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Cover3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Cover4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Reference Point
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - RF2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - 2010 Mainframe Buyer's Guide
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BGCover2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG1
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG2
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG4
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG5
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - COMPANY SHOWCASES: Learn more about some of the companies that develop and sell products for the mainframe
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG7
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG8
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG9
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG10
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG11
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG12
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG13
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - PRODUCT + SERVICE LAUNCHES: Get in-depth descriptions of some products in the guide
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG15
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - SUCCESS STORIES: These real-world examples show how mainframe business partners bring real value to companies
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG17
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG18
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - USING THE PRODUCT + SERVICE DIRECTORY: How to navigate the listings
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Product + Service Directory: Hardware Listings
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG21
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Product + Service Directory: Software Listings
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG23
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG24
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG25
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG26
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG27
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG28
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG29
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG30
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG31
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG32
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG33
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG34
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG35
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG36
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BG37
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Product + Service Directory: Services Listings
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - Product + Service Directory: Education Listings
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - INDEXES
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BGCover3
IBM Systems Magazine, Mainframe digital edition - September/October 2009 - BGCover4
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20191112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20190910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20190708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20190506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20190304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/relevantz_20190102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/2019mfse
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20190102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20181112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20180910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20180708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20180506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20180304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20180102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/2018mfse
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20171112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170910_v2
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_sesupp
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20170102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_linuxsupp
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20161112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/MainframeSecurity
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20160910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20160708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20160506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20160304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20160102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20151112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150910_se
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/MFSkills
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150506_supp
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20150102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20141112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140910_v2
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_gt_201405
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/BigData
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20140102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20131112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130910_v2
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20130102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20121112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/buyersguide2013
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20120910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20120708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20120506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20120304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20120102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/ibmsystems_mainframe_2012bg
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20111112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20110910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20110708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20110506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20110304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20110102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20101112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100910_bg
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100506
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100304
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20100102
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20091112
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20090910
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20090708
http://www.ibmsystemsmagmainframedigital.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20090506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ibmsystemsmag/mainframe_20090304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/mspcomm/ibmsystems_mainframe_200901
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com